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Global Subsidiary Footprint Index (GAFI)

The measure captures the proportion of total affiliates owned by a company in a given country and time. The dataset covers the 2,000 largest firms at the international level and their total affiliates in 129 countries in the period 2007-2019. Citation: Ballesteros L, Magelssen C. 2022. Institutional Disruptions and the Philanthropy of Multinational Firms. Organization Science 33(4): 1501–1522. Request at

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